There are other learning mechanisms than those assessed in classical developmental tests, which are important for RS girls in order to learn to know and understand their world.
On September 30, 1999, Dr. Huda Zoghbi of Baylor University, announced that a research team had, after a 16 year search, discovered the gene responsible for Rett Syndrome. The gene, MeCP2,is a mutation on the X chromosome.
We have expanded on the descriptive epidemiology of Rett syndrome and shown different patterns according to the severity scale selected. Although all affected children are severely functionally dependent, it is still possible to identify some variation in ability, even in children with identified MECP2 mutations.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1/10,000ndash15,000 girls. The disease-causing gene was identified as MECP2 on chromosome Xq28, and mutations have been found in sim80% of patients diagnosed with RTT. Numerous mutations have been identified in de novo and rare familial cases, and they occur primarily in the methyl-CpGndashbinding and transcriptional-repression domains of MeCP2. Our first diagnostic strategy used bidirectional sequencing of the entire MECP2 coding region. Subsequently, we implemented a two-tiered strategy that used denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) for initial screening of nucleotide variants, followed by confirmatory sequencing analysis. If a definite mutation was not identified, then the entire MECP2 coding region was sequenced, to reduce the risk of false negatives. Collectively, we tested 228 unrelated female patients with a diagnosis of possible (209) or classic (19) RTT and found MECP2 mutations in 83 (40%) of 209 and 16 (84%) of 19 of the patients, respectively. Thirty-two different mutations were identified (8 missense, 9 nonsense, 1 splice site, and 14 frameshifts), of which 12 are novel and 9 recurrent in unrelated patients. Seven unclassified variants and eight polymorphisms were detected in 228 probands. Interestingly, we found that T203M, previously reported as a missense mutation in an autistic patient, is actually a benign polymorphism, according to parental analysis performed in a second case identified in this study. These findings highlight the complexities of missense variant interpretation and emphasize the importance of parental DNA analysis for establishing an etiologic relation between a possible mutation and disease. Overall, we found a 98.8% concordance rate between DHPLC and sequence analyses. One mutation initially missed by the DHPLC screening was identified by sequencing. Modified conditions subsequently enabled its detection, underscoring the need for multiple optimized conditions for DHPLC analysis. We conclude that this two-tiered approach provides a sensitive, robust, and efficient strategy for RTT molecular diagnosis.
This review will focus on experiments addressing the basic properties of MeCP2 and on mouse models of Rett syndrome that are starting to yield insights into this condition.
Methylation of cytosine in human DNA has been studied for over 60 years, but has only recently been confirmed as an important player in human disease. Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by mutations in the MeCP2 protein, which has been shown to bind methylated DNA and repress transcription. This review will focus on experiments addressing the basic properties of MeCP2 and on mouse models of Rett syndrome that are starting to yield insights into this condition.
Whole genome sequencing of several metazoan model organisms provides a platform for studying genome evolution. How representative are the genomes of these model organisms for their respective phyla? Within nematodes, for example, the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a highly derived species with unusual genomic characters, such as a reduced Hox cluster (Curr. Biol., 13, 37–40) and the absence of a Hedgehog signaling system. Here, we describe the recent loss of a DNA methyltransferase-2 gene (dnmt-2) in C.elegans. A dnmt-2-like gene is present in the satellite model organism Pristionchus pacificus, another free-living nematode that diverged from C.elegans 200–300 million years ago. In contrast, C.elegans, Caenorhabditis briggsae and P.pacificus all contain an mbd-2-like gene, which encodes another essential component of the methylation system of higher animals and fungi. Cel-mbd-2 is expressed throughout development and RNA interference (RNAi) experiments result in variable phenotypes. In contrast, Cbr-mbd-2 RNAi results in paralyzed larval or adult worms suggesting recent changes of gene function within the genus Caenorhabditis. We speculate that both genes were part of an ancestral DNA methylation system in nematodes and that gene loss and sequence divergence have abolished DNA methylation in C.elegans.
More than 85% of Rett syndrome (RTT) patients have heterozygous mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene which encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional repressor that binds methylated CpG sites. Because MECP2 is subject to X chromosome inactivation (XCI), girls with RTT express either the wild type or mutant MECP2 in each of their cells. To test the hypothesis that MECP2 mutations result in genome-wide transcriptional deregulation and identify its target genes in a system that circumvents the functional mosaicism resulting from XCI, we performed gene expression profiling of pure populations of untransformed T-lymphocytes that express either a mutant or a wild-type allele. Single T lymphocytes from a patient with a c.473C>T (p.T158M) mutation and one with a c.1308-1309delTC mutation were subcloned and subjected to short term culture. Gene expression profiles of wild-type and mutant clones were compared by oligonucleotide expression microarray analysis. Expression profiling yielded 44 upregulated genes and 77 downregulated genes. We compared this gene list with expression profiles of independent microarray experiments in cells and tissues of RTT patients and mouse models with Mecp2 mutations. These comparisons identified a candidate MeCP2 target gene, SPOCK1, downregulated in two independent microarray experiments, but its expression was not altered by quantitative RT-PCR analysis on brain tissues from a RTT mouse model. Initial expression profiling from T-cell clones of RTT patients identified a list of potential MeCP2 target genes. Further detailed analysis and comparison to independent microarray experiments did not confirm significantly altered expression of most candidate genes. These results are consistent with other reported data.
Results provide evidence of how Rett syndrome mutations can affect distinct functions of MeCP2 and give insight into these mutations that may contribute to the disease.
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder within the autism spectrum. The prevalence is estimated at 1 in 10,000. Because it is a sporadic illness, initially it was difficult to establish its genetic basis.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Previous data have shown that MECP2 RNA is present in all mouse and human tissues tested, but the timing of expression and regional distribution have not been explored. We investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of the MeCP2 protein during mouse and human development. We found that in the adult mouse, MeCP2 is high in the brain, lung and spleen, lower in heart and kidney, and barely detectable in liver, stomach and small intestine. There was no obvious correlation between protein levels and RNA levels, suggesting that translation may be post-transcriptionally regulated by tissue-specific factors. The timing of MeCP2 expression in mouse and human correlated with the maturation of the central nervous system, with the ontogenetically older structures such as the spinal cord and brainstem becoming positive before newer structures such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In the cortex, MeCP2 first appeared in the Cajal–Retzius cells, then in the neurons of the deeper, more mature cortical layers, and finally in the neurons of the more superficial layers. The MeCP2 protein was eventually present in a majority of neurons but was absent from glial cells. Our data suggest that MeCP2 may become abundant only once a neuron has reached a certain degree of maturity, and that this may explain some aspects of the RTT phenotype.
An International Association which provides comprehensive information on all aspects of Rett Syndrome.
Mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein gene MECP2 at Xq28 cause Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a period of stagnation followed by regression in the development of young girls. Mutations were sought in MECP2 in 48 females with classical sporadic RTT, seven families with possible familial RTT and five sporadic females with features suggestive, but not diagnostic of RTT. Long distance PCR coupled with long-read direct sequencing was employed to sequence the entire MECP2 gene coding region in all cases. Mutations were identified in 44/55 (80%) unrelated classical sporadic and familial RTT patients, but only 1/5 (20%) sporadic cases with suggestive but non-diagnostic features of RTT. Twenty-one different mutations were identified (12 missense, four nonsense and five frame-shift mutations); 14 of these were novel. All missense mutations were located either in the methyl-CpG-binding domain or in the transcription repression domain. Nine recurrent mutations were characterized in a total of 33 unrelated cases (73% of all cases with MECP2 mutations). Significantly milder disease was noted in patients carrying missense mutations as compared with those with truncating mutations (P = 0.0023), and milder disease was associated with late as compared with early truncating mutations (P = 0.0190).
Rett syndrome (RS) is associated in 65-80% of cases with mutations in the coding region of the transcriptional repressor MeCP2. Although MeCP2 most likely affects gene expression through chromatin changes secondary to recruitment of histone
deacetylases, no data on histone acetylation in RS brain have been reported. This study intended to provide an initial examination of
MeCP2 expression and histone acetylation in the frontal cortex from six RS subjects, four with (nonsense) and two without mutations,
who have been characterized with transcription profiles by cDNA microarrays. Postmortem samples were evaluated by quantitative immunoblotting and compared with gender- and age-matched controls. Levels of acetylated histones H3 and H4 were compared with the number of abnormally regulated genes (>3 fold) per
subject. In RS subjects, MeCP2's C-terminus immunoreactivity was decreased in both homogenates and synaptic fractions, and the 100 kDa/75 kDa ratio of MeCP2 was increased in synaptic preparations. Levels of the methyl-binding protein MBD1, but not MBD3, were elevated in RS samples. Levels of acetylated histones, in particular H3, were markedly increased in RS cortex. These levels correlated with the number of downregulated genes per RS subject. These data suggest that in RS cortex there is redistribution of MeCP2 and MeCP2-like expression, probably as a compensatory mechanism, and an increase in acetylated H3 as a major consequence of MeCP2
deficit. The preferential link between acetylated H3 and reduction in gene expression indicates that abnormal transcription in RS brain may involve the upregulation of other transcription factors and/or histone acetylation-independent mechanisms.
Although this study showed that MECP2 mutations account for most cases of typical forms of RTT (65%) and mutations in non-coding regions cannot be excluded for the remaining cases, an alternative hypothesis that takes into account the homogeneous phenotype and exclusive involvement of females, could be the implication in RTT of a putative second X-linked gene.
Mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), encoding a transcriptional repressor, cause Rett syndrome and a variety of related neurodevelopmental disorders. The vast majority of mutations associated with human disease are loss-of-function mutations, but precisely what aspect of MeCP2 function is responsible for these phenotypes remains unknown. We overexpressed wild-type human protein in transgenic mice using a large genomic clone containing the entire human MECP2 locus. Detailed neurobehavioral and electrophysiological studies in transgenic line MeCP2Tg1, which expresses MeCP2 at ~2-fold wild-type levels, demonstrated onset of phenotypes around 10 weeks of age. Surprisingly, these mice displayed enhanced motor and contextual learning and enhanced synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. After 20 weeks of age, however, these mice developed seizures, became hypoactive and ~30% of them died by 1 year of age. These data demonstrate that MeCP2 levels must be tightly regulated in vivo, and that even mild overexpression of this protein is detrimental. Furthermore, these results support the possibility that duplications or gain-of-function mutations in MECP2 might underlie some cases of X-linked delayed-onset neurobehavioral disorders.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Brain samples from several related neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, pervasive developmental disorder, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes showed significant differences in MeCP2 expression from age-matched controls by apparently different transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. These results suggest that multiple pathways regulate the complex developmental expression of MeCP2 and are defective in autism-spectrum disorders in addition to RTT.
Research updates, genetic information, newsletter availability and more can be found at this Rett site.
General information and genetic profile
The British Association for the girls and their families who are dealing with Rett Syndrome.
Rett syndrome, one of the leading causes of mental retardation and developmental regression in girls, is the first pervasive developmental disorder with a known genetic cause. The majority of cases of sporadic Rett syndrome are caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 binds methylated DNA and likely regulates gene expression and chromatin structure. Genotype/phenotype analysis revealed that the phenotypic spectrum of MECP2 mutations in humans is broader than initially suspected: Mutations have been discovered in Rett syndrome variants, mentally retarded males, and autistic children. A variety of in vivo and in vitro models has been developed that allow analysis of MeCP2 function and pathogenic studies of Rett syndrome. Because the neuropathology of Rett syndrome shares certain features with other neurodevelopmental disorders, a common pathogenic process may underlie these disorders. Thus, Rett syndrome is a prototype for the genetic, molecular, and neurobiological analysis of neurodevelopmental disorders.
The severity of the phenotype is likely to reflect the pattern of X chromosome inactivation in relevant tissues, although the type and position of the mutation may also play a role. Although much is known about the biochemical function of MeCP2, the phenotype of Rett syndrome suggests that it plays an unexplored but critical role in development and maintenance of the nervous system.
Only recently have mutations in MECP2 been found to be a cause of Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, loss of expressive speech, deceleration of head growth and loss of acquired skills that almost exclusively affects females. We analysed the MECP2 gene in 31 patients diagnosed with RTT. Sequencing of the coding region and the splice sites revealed mutations in 24 females (77.40%). However, no abnormalities were detected in any of the parents that were available for investigation. Eleven mutations have not been described previously. Confirming two earlier studies, we found that most mutations are truncating and only a few of them are missense mutations. Several females carrying the same mutation display different phenotypes indicating that factors other than the type or position of mutations influence the severity of RTT. Four females with RTT variants were included in the study. Three of these presented with preserved speech while the fourth patient with congenital RTT lacked the initial period of normal development. Detection of mutations in these cases reveals that they are indeed variants of RTT. They represent the mild and the severe extremes of RTT. Conclusions: mutations in MECP2 seem to be the main cause for RTT and can be expected to be found in ~77% of patients that fulfil the criteria for RTT. Therefore analysis of MECP2 should be performed if RTT is suspected. Three mutation hotspots (T158M, R168X and R255X) were confirmed and a further one (R270X) newly identified. We recommend screening for these mutations before analysing the coding region.
RS is one of the most important causes of neurological impairment in females, and that it is a developmental disorder rather than a progressive, degenerative disorder. Survival into adulthood is expected.
Very early development is normal. Head growth then decelerates, and a loss of purposeful hand movements occurs. Motor involvement is quite striking and profound mental retardation is typical. Characteristic hand-washing stereotypies develop.
Neurological disorder involving reduced muscle tone, autistic-like behavior, hand movements, loss of purposeful use of the hands, diminished ability to express feelings, avoidance of eye contact, lag in brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures.
Rett's syndrome (RS), a progressive developmental disorder, was first described in 22 girls presenting with stereotyped hand movements, autistic behavior, dementia, ataxia, cortical atrophy, and hyperammonemia.
Mecp2 deficiency leads to subtle gene expression changes in mutant brains which may be associated with the phenotypic changes observed.
No other condition has a period of rapid deterioration followed by apparent stabilization or even improvement in autistic features, eye contact, seizure activity, and hand stereotypies.
Rett syndrome is a neuro-developmental disorder related to autistic behavior. Persons with autism have previously been found to have hyperpeptiduria. We here report a significantly higher level of peptides in the first fasting morning urine from 53 girls with Rett syndrome (both classical and congenital) compared with 53 healthy girls. This elevation in urinary peptides was similar to that in 35 girls with infantile autism. As in persons with autism, the individual levels of urinary peptides in the Rett syndrome group varied, and about a fifth were within the normal range. Levels of peptides were lower in girls with classic Rett syndrome than in girls with congenital Rett syndrome. This may be due to different etiological causes or to active and stagnant phases of the disease. Urine from girls with Rett syndrome was found to have higher frequency and higher levels of some urinary peptides that may cause inhibition of brain maturation and epilepsy.
Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting mostly females, is caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpGndashbinding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although the majority of girls with classic RTT have a random pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), nonbalanced patterns have been observed in patients carrying mutant MECP2 and, in some cases, account for variability of phenotypic manifestations. We have generated an RTT mouse model that recapitulates all major aspects of the human disease, but we found that females exhibit a high degree of phenotypic variability beyond what is observed in human patients with similar mutations. To evaluate whether XCI influences the phenotypic outcome of Mecp2 mutation in the mouse, we studied the pattern of XCI at the single-cell level in brains of heterozygous females. We found that XCI patterns were unbalanced, favoring expression of the wild-type allele, in most mutant females. It is notable that none of the animals had nonrandom XCI favoring the mutant allele. To explore why the XCI patterns favored expression of the wild-type allele, we studied primary neuronal cultures from Mecp2-mutant mice and found selective survival of neurons in which the wild-type X chromosome was active. Quantitative analysis indicated that fewer phenotypes are observed when a large percentage of neurons have the mutant X chromosome inactivated. The study of neuronal XCI patterns in a large number of female mice carrying a mutant Mecp2 allele highlights the importance of MeCP2 for neuronal viability. These findings also raise the possibility that there are human females who carry mutant MECP2 alleles but are not recognized because their phenotypes are subdued owing to favorable XCI patterns.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). The onset of symptoms in RTT is delayed until 6–18 months and 4–6 months in the Mecp2–/+ mouse model, corresponding to a dynamic and gradual accumulation of MeCP2 expression in individual neurons of the postnatal brain. Because of X chromosome inactivation (XCI), cells within RTT females are mosaic for expression of the heterozygous MECP2 mutation. Using the targeted Mecp2 mouse model, we investigated the effect of Mecp2 mutation on XCI and developmental MeCP2 expression in wild-type (wt)-expressing neurons by quantitative laser scanning cytometry. Mecp2–/+ female mice exhibited uniform regional distribution of Mecp2 mutant-expressing cells in brain, but unbalanced XCI in the population, favoring expression of the Mecp2 wt allele. Interestingly, MeCP2 expression in Mecp2 wt-expressing cells from Mecp2–/+ mice was significantly lower than those from Mecp2+/+ age-matched controls. The negative effect of Mecp2 mutation on wt Mecp2 expression correlated with the percentage of Mecp2 mutant-expressing cells in the cortex. Similar results were observed in two RTT females with identical MECP2 mutations but different XCI ratios. These results demonstrate that Mecp2-mutant neurons affect the development of surrounding neurons in a non-cell-autonomous manner and suggest that environmental influences affect the level of MeCP2 expression in wt neurons. These results help in explaining the role of XCI in the pathogenesis of RTT and have important implications in designing therapies for female RTT patients.
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